Line pan with plastic wrap. Place on a rimmed baking sheet. Combine all berries, 1 cup sugar, and 1/2 cup water in a large pot. Scrape in seeds from vanilla bean. Bring to a simmer, stirring to dissolve sugar. Simmer for 10 minutes. Set berry sauce aside.
Spread bread slices with butter. Mix remaining 2 tablespoons sugar and cinnamon in a small bowl. Sprinkle over bread slices.
Drizzle 1/2 cup warm berry sauce over bottom of pan. Line pan with a single layer of bread, cutting to fit as needed. Pour 1 1/2 cups berry sauce over. Repeat layering 2 more times. Pour any remaining sauce over. Cover with plastic. Set a plate slightly smaller than pan on top of pudding to weigh down, keeping bread submerged. Chill for at least 1 hour and up to 2 days.
Remove plate and plastic from top of pudding. Invert onto a plate. Release pan sides; remove pan and plastic.