Add carrots, red bell peppers, green bell peppers, onions, and garlic.
Cook, stirring, until the onions are golden, 12 to 15 minutes.
Add jalapeno pepper(s), chili powder, and cumin.
Cook, stirring for 2 minutes.
Stir in tomatoes, kidney beans, cannellini beans, black beans, tomato juice, and salt.
Bring to a boil. Reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer, uncovered, stirring occasionally and adding more tomato juice or water as needed, until the flavors are blended, about 45 minutes. Taste and adjust the seasonings. Ladle into bowls and serve with sour cream, salsa fresca, and/or chopped cilantro.