Pour the melted butter in a 9x13-inch baking dish, then sprinkle the brown sugar all around. Arrange the pineapple rings in a single layer in the baking dish, placing a maraschino cherry in the center of each ring. Set aside.
Combine the flour, baking soda, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, and salt in a bowl. Beat 1 cup butter and the white sugar with an electric mixer in another bowl until light and fluffy. Beat in the eggs and molasses. Gradually stir the flour mixture into the liquid ingredients, alternating with the hot water and reserved pineapple juice, until just combined. Slowly pour the batter evenly into the prepared pan, being careful not to move the arranged pineapple slices.
Bake in the preheated oven until a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean, about 1 hour. Cool the cake in the pan completely on a wire rack. When the cake is cool, run a paring knife between the cake and the edge of the pan. Cover the cake pan with a plate, and invert it to tip the cake out of the pan and onto the plate.