In a food processor, combine cilantro, garlic, ginger, vegetable and sesame oils, red-pepper flakes, lime zest and juice, brown sugar, and 1/4 cup peanuts. Pulse until a coarse paste forms. Season with soy sauce and pulse to combine.
In a large bowl, toss pesto with pasta. Roughly chop remaining peanuts and sprinkle over pasta along with cilantro leaves.