Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Place penne in the pot, cook for 8 to 10 minutes, until al dente, and drain.
In a skillet over medium heat, cook the sausage until evenly brown. Cool and slice.
Heat the oil in a large pot over medium heat, and cook the garlic 1 minute, until lightly browned. Mix in sausage, pesto, and white wine. Cook and stir until heated through. Mix in beans with liquid and arugula, and cook until arugula is wilted. Stir in the tomatoes, and cook until heated through. Toss with pasta, season with salt and pepper, and top with goat cheese to serve.