To prepare dough, lightly spoon flour into dry measuring cups, and level with a knife. Combine 4 cups flour, 2 tablespoons granulated sugar, almonds, and the next 8 ingredients (almonds through cardamom) in a bowl.
Dissolve 1 tablespoon of granulated sugar and yeast in warm water in a large bowl; let stand 5 minutes. Stir in butter, vanilla, and 2 beaten eggs until well-blended. Gradually add flour mixture; stir to combine. Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface. Knead until smooth and elastic (about 8 minutes); add enough remaining flour, 1 tablespoon at a time, to prevent dough from sticking to hands.
Place dough in a large bowl coated with cooking spray, turning to coat top. Cover and let rise in a warm place (85°), free from drafts, 1 hour and 45 minutes. Dough will not double in size.(Press two fingers into dough. If indentation remains, the dough has risen enough.)
Punch dough down; let rest 5 minutes. Roll into an 11 x 9-inch rectangle on a lightly floured surface. Roll up rectangle tightly, starting with a short edge, pressing firmly to eliminate air pockets; pinch seam and ends to seal. Place, seam side down, in a 9 x 5-inch loaf pan coated with cooking spray. Cover and let rise 1 hour and 30 minutes.
Preheat oven to 375°.
Uncover the dough. Combine fat-free milk, 1/8 teaspoon salt, and 1 egg; brush lightly over loaf. Sprinkle with turbinado sugar. Bake at 375° for 45 minutes or until loaf sounds hollow when tapped. Remove from pan; cool on a wire rack.
To prepare glaze, combine the powdered sugar, water, and almond extract in a small bowl. Drizzle over loaf.