Gently heat buttermilk and figs in a saucepan over medium-low heat until softened, 10 to 15 minutes; set aside until cool.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a tube pan.
Sift flour, sugar, baking powder, nutmeg, cinnamon, and salt together in a bowl.
Beat eggs in a large bowl with an electric hand mixer on high for 1 minute. Add fig-and-buttermilk mixture, bread crumbs, butter, almonds, orange marmalade, orange zest, and orange-vanilla flavoring to the beaten eggs; beat on low speed until blended. Gradually add flour mixture while beating until just incorporated into a batter. Spoon batter into prepared pan. Grease a sheet of aluminum foil; use to cover pan.
Bake in preheated oven until firm and pulling away from sides of the pan, about 2 hours. Set aside to cool for 10 minutes before removing from pan.