Melt the butter in a large pot over medium-high heat. Cook and stir the onion, potatoes, celery, and garlic in the melted butter until the onion and celery are translucent, 5 to 7 minutes. Pour the water over the vegetable mixture; stir the chicken bouillon into the liquid until dissolved. Bring the mixture to a boil; cook at a boil until the potatoes are fork-tender, about 5 minutes.
Stir the cabbage into the boiling liquid. Reduce heat to medium. Add the tomatoes with juices, ketchup, hot sauce, and Italian seasoning; stir to combine. Allow the mixture to simmer until the flavors have a chance to mix, about 15 minutes.